Monday, January 20, 2020

Kochs Postulates :: essays research papers

Koch’s Postulates   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Introduction Koch created four guidelines to determine the causal agents of disease in humans, animals, and plants. Koch proved that a disease-causing agent could be transferred from one organism to another and create the same illness. Isolation of pure cultures and the introduction of the disease-causing agent to a healthy organism will transmit the disease and infect the inoculated organism. Koch’s four guidelines by which one must follow to transmit a disease from an infected organism to a healthy one are as followed: 1. The specific organism should be shown to be present in all cases of animals suffering from a specific disease but should not be found in healthy animals. 2. The specific microorganism should be isolated from the diseased animal and grown in pure culture on artificial laboratory media. 3. This freshly isolated microorganism, when inoculated into a healthy laboratory animal, should cause the same disease seen in the original animal. 4. The microorganism should be reisolated in pure culture from the experimental infection. In this exercise, Penicillium was utilized, a common, safe, mold. Certain species of Penicillium will spoil fruits, vegetables, grains, and grasses. Other species will ripen various chesses. Still, other species are used in the production of antibiotics. The species of Penicillium, italicum is provided for the lab because of its pronounced hyphae. Penicillium italicum, along with Penicillium digitatum attack citrus fruits post-harvest. In this experiment, the effect of Penicillium italicum on two types of citrus fruits and one non-citrus fruits were tested.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Materials & Methods 1. Pick several appropriate fruits. 2. Gently was fruit in cool, soapy water, using a scrub brush on the citrus fruits, then rinse thoroughly with cool running tap water. 3. Place citrus in a beaker and cover with a 10% bleach solution. Let soak for 10 minutes. 4. Rinse thoroughly with cool running tap water for 10 minutes. 5. Flame sterilize a teasing needle, cool, then pierce skin of disinfected fruit. 6. Unscrew cap on Penicilium italicum culture tube with one hand and flame the mouth of the tube. 7. Using the first three fingers of your writing hand, obtain a sterile applicator stick and remove a small sample of the fungus and smear over the puncture wound of the fruit. 8. Flame tube and recap. Discard swabs appropriately. 9. Obtain a second sample with a sterile applicator stick and smear over an unpunctured section of the fruit. 10. Flame tube and recap. Discard swabs appropriately. 11. Maintain a control for the experiment.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Leadership Principles for Effective Change

â€Å"Change only happens when each person makes a decision to implement the change.† It is very easy to talk about dreams and talk about plans. But without the commitment to follow through and implement what needs to be done, such talk is merely wishful thinking. Every person involved in the process should implement change because everyone involved should do his part. Otherwise, the change will be incomplete. In order to manage change, the tasks that each person needs to do should be written down for implementation and monitoring. This may seem difficult and out of culture but it can do a lot in making people accountable and willing to implement the changes discussed by the organization. â€Å"A clearly defined vision of the end result enables all the people to define the most efficient path for accomplishing the results.† A vision is a powerful thing. It helps refine and enhance the direction of the organization. When a vision is clearly stated and understood by the members of the organization, they can formulate their strategies and align their activities toward the vision of the organization. Out of the vision, the strategies of the organization can be formulated. Some strategies, however, may appear not to support the end result as stated in the vision. To ensure that the strategies are aligned with the vision, an organization needs to promote its vision and its mission to its employees and to its management team. During the sessions of strategic planning, the vision should be inculcated into the minds and practices of the organization so that the strategies formulated support the fulfillment of the vision. With a clearly defined vision, the people know what they are working for. When they know what they are working for, they can search for the best approach there is. Select the two principles you believe are the most important to follow when managing change and describe why you feel these are essential. Describe some specific techniques that can be used to manage change in an organization. Explain how these techniques are consistent with the principles you selected. 1.Thought processes and relationship dynamics are fundamental if change is to be successful. 2.Change only happens when each person makes a decision to implement the change. 3.People fear change it â€Å"happens† to them. 4.Given the freedom to do so, people will build quality into their work as a matter of personal pride. 5.Traditional organizational systems treat people like children and expect them to act like adults. 6.†Truth† is more important during periods of change and uncertainty than â€Å"good news.† 7.Trust is earned by those who demonstrate consistent behavior and clearly defined values. 8.People who work are capable of doing much more than they are doing. 9.The intrinsic rewards of a project are often more important than the material rewards and recognition. 10. A clearly defined vision of the end result enables all the people to define the most efficient path for accomplishing the results. 11. The more input people have into defining the changes that will affect their work, the more they will take ownership for the results. 12. To change the individual, change the system.   

Saturday, January 4, 2020

What Is a Buffer and How Does It Work

The use of buffers is an important concept in acid-base chemistry. Heres a look at what buffers are and how they function. What Is a Buffer? There are two key terms associated with buffers. A buffer is an aqueous solution that has a highly stable pH. A buffering agent is a weak acid or weak base that helps maintain the pH of an aqueous solution after adding another acid or base. If you add an acid or a base to a buffered solution, its pH will not change significantly. Similarly, adding water to a buffer or allowing water to evaporate will not change the pH of a buffer. How Do You Make a Buffer? A buffer is made by mixing a large volume of a weak acid or weak base together with its conjugate. A weak acid and its conjugate base can remain in solution without neutralizing each other. The same is true for a weak base and its conjugate acid. How Do Buffers Work? When hydrogen ions are added to a buffer, they will be neutralized by the base in the buffer. Hydroxide ions will be neutralized by the acid. These neutralization reactions will not have much effect on the overall pH of the buffer solution. When you select an acid for a buffer solution, choose an acid that has a pKa close to your desired pH. This will give your buffer nearly equivalent amounts of acid and conjugate base so it will be able to neutralize as much H and OH- as possible. Sources Atkins, Peter; Jones, Loretta (2005). Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight (3rd ed.). New York: Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-5701-X.Harris, Daniel C. (2003). Quantitative Chemical Analysis (6th ed.). New York: Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-4464-3.

Friday, December 27, 2019

African Studies African Experience Analysis Essay

How do we undertake the study of the African experience? Abstract: In my research, to understand how we undertake the study of the African experience you have to start in the beginning of time which dates back hundreds of thousands years ago and go into one of the first civilizations known as ancient Egypt. Understanding where the people come from and where they are at today does not even cover a quarter of understanding the true African experience. To understand truly how to undertake the African experience you must understand the social structure, governance, ways of knowing, science and technology, movement and memory, and cultural meaning (The six conceptual categories). With these concepts you understand that in a cosmograph known†¦show more content†¦This shows that civilization started in Africa. As much as Europeans try and take everything from us Africans and rewrite our history as far as the Christopher Columbus era, it does not matter because artifacts shows that everything was started in Africa. We use ways of knowing to prove that between the bones found in Africa there was civilization in ancient Africa. â€Å"Experiential Kin is when you grow up with someone, even though your not blood family that’s your cousin. You don’t have aunts or uncles like in America. You have the nucleus family then the extended family.† This is the reason villages were so important in the uprising of Africa. In discussion, before the Romans and Greeks had the idea of conquering the world, there were ancient Egyptians. Consisting of nobles, scribes, farmers, and craftsman, Egyptians created time through sundials, books through scribes, language through hieroglyphics, crops through farmers, art through craftsman. In addition, temples were built on with their own backs and hands, which is something that no man today, would be able to accomplish. The era of technology seemed to have just recently surpassed the dedication and hard work of the ancient people. As we fast forward in time we go back to the Christ opher Columbus era. Europeans came to Africa and their mission was to erase all of the knowledge and power we had before their arrival.Show MoreRelatedFacilitating Career Planning for African American Women in Organizational Leadership1283 Words   |  6 Pagespolitical, academic, and social connections become increasing important to nonprofits in order to stay in business. African American women may be the least attractive group for nonprofits to recruit and cultivate for fear of them not having the proper connections to further develop the agency into the growth the company needs to sustain itself. This may also be a reason why African American women tend to shy away from the leadership roles in leading nonprofits in Philadelphia. The counterbalanceRead MoreAfrican American Social Studies Teachers1587 Words   |  7 PagesThis study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers’ racialized experiences as African Americans and how these experiences influence their use of culturally relevant pedagogy to teach their African American students. Overview Disparities exist in educationalRead MoreInterview With A Interview Protocol1242 Words   |  5 PagesAn interview protocol was utilized in this study. This instrument was designed to keep the face-to-face interview on track and effective. 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Quane et al (2015) provide data collected from the U.S. meta-data that describes the economicRead MoreHow The Strategies Implemented Within The Classroom1607 Words   |  7 Pagespurpose of this study is to examine how the strategies implemented within the classroom are set in place to increase young adult literature engagement towards African-American males in middle through high school classrooms living in an inner city sector of North Texas. Inspecting the progression through the spectacles of critical race theory (CRT), this study examines how to review cultural response to adjust teaching to responding to the cultural needs and learning styles of African American maleRead MoreThe Spiritual Factor Of African American Males Attending A White Christian Institutions1359 Words   |  6 PagesSpiritual Factor: Examining the role spirituality plays in the development of African American Males attending Predominately White Christian Institutions Abstract This study examined the role that spirituality plays in the development of African American males who attend predominately white Christian institutions (PCIs). This hermeneutic phenomenological study focused on Christian college students who were African American males ages 18-21 and identified as evangelical Christian. Findings illustratedRead MoreRationale For A Phenomenological Research860 Words   |  4 Pages Not only does this chapter reveal the research design utilized in this study, but also the relationships of the research questions that were under examination, as well as the procedures that were followed in the development and implementation of the study. A full description is included in the research design, research questions, population, data collection and proposed data analysis involving the challenges that African American female secondary school educators’ have experienced with their students

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Procedures in the Physical Science Essay - 1440 Words

Laboratory Research Report 1: Procedures in the Physical Sciences Hebert Duran Strayer University SCI 110, Kung Craig P. 29 April 2013 Identify three (3) specific challenges to making direct measurements in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, physics, or earth science. Describe how scientists have utilized indirect forms of measure to overcome these challenges Since the ancient times people have always been attracted to the unknown. Humans have always been curious about everything they have come across; How big is our earth?, how deep is the sea? Are there any other lands past the horizon?, and how big is our universe?. These types of questions have always led humans to forcefully exercise their minds into figuring them out.†¦show more content†¦The telescope is an optical instrument designed to make distant objects appear nearer. It contains an arrangement of lenses or mirrors or both that gathers visible light, permitting direct observation or photographic recording of distant objects. (Lacki, B. C. 2011). With the use of telescopes we have been able to learn a lot more about the planets in our universe. It has helped us understand about some of the history of everything around us. Also it has been able to track asteroids and comets or any randomly flying objet in outer space that might become threatening to our planet. Anothe r tool that have had a big impact in the science world is the Microscope. A microscope is an optical instrument that uses a lens or combination of lenses to produce a magnified image of small or microscopic objects such as bacteria and cells. One of the most known and historic purposes that the microscope has been used for is during the discovery of penicillin. Dr. Fleming, a bacteriologist, observed that a plate culture of staphylococcus had bee contaminated by a blue green mold. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Issues in Financial Reporting - free sample - Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss about the Issues in Financial Reporting. Answer: Introduction: This assignment focuses on how the different financial adjustments affect the two main income statements of the company; namely the consolidated profit loss account and the consolidated balance sheet. The discussion has been done with respect to the given case study of a company named Marvin Co. Ltd whose financial statements are being prepared on 31st December, 2016 as per the accounting standards of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) (Choi and Wang, 2009).In this assignment, study has been done regarding the impact of lease contract, Warranty maintenance cost, property revaluation and cost of paying employee termination benefit and bankruptcy of the customer or debtor over the financial health of the chosen company named Marvin Co. Ltd.In order to analyse the impact the relevant journal entries has been discussed and also the changes that will take place in the consolidated balance sheet and profit loss account of the company are being identified. BODY The Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS): The organization of IFRS is a not-for-profit organization that works for the interest to f the public and has been established to develop a single set of high-quality, understandable, enforceable and globally accepted accounting standardsIFRS Standards. The organization is also involved in the promotion and facilitation of the accounting rules so that the business organization can easily adopt the accounting standards(Li, 2010). The reason behind the development of the accounting standards is to provide understandable accounting principles to all the companies across the world so that the companies get equipped with a set of accounting principles that can be easily use d while preparing their financial statements. A set of good accounting principles is needed to properly regulate the global as a well as the regional capital market (Chen et al.,2010). 1 .Impact of lease contract made between the companies Irish and Marvin Co. Ltd on the consolidated Balance sheet P/L account As per the IFRS-16 accounting standard the following entries are to be made with respect to the lease contract made between the Marvin Co. Ltd and the Company Irish Relevant Journal Entries At the end of first year when first instalment of lease has been paid Right-of-use asset a/c......Dr$400,000 To lease liability a/c.....Cr $400,000 At the end of 2nd year when 2nd instalment of lease has been paid Right-of-use asset a/c......Dr$400,000 To lease liability a/c.....Cr $400,000 At the end of 3nd year when 3rd instalment of lease has been paid Right-of-use asset a/c......Dr$200,000 To lease liability a/c.....Cr $200,000 In the consolidated balance sheet of the lease liability will be added to the liability side of the balance sheet. So the liability of the consolidated balance sheet prepared on 31 December,2016 will increase by $400,000 Journal entry for the interest payment on the lease Journal entry for the payment of interest on lease at the end of first year P/L account ........Dr.$40,000 To Expense a/c ...... Cr. $40,000 Journal entry for the payment of interest on lease at the end of second year P/L account ........Dr.$40,000 To Expense a/c ........ Cr. $40,000 Journal entry for the payment of interest on lease at the end of third year P/L account ........Dr.$20,000 To Expense a/c ....... Cr. $20,000 From the above journal entry it can be seen that an additional interest expense will be added to the debit side of the profit and loss account and the debit side of the consolidated profit and loss account increase will increase by $40,000 (Kieso et al.,2010). The machine has a 3 years period of life but as no information has been given regarding the rate of depreciation, therefore no journal entry has been made in relation to the depreciation of machine The above journal entries are mainly done with respect to the account of Marvin Co. Ltd Impact of Warranty related returns on the financial position of Marvin Co. Ltd Provision for warranty made by Marvin Co. Ltd is $300,000. The relevant journal entry: Warranty Expenses. ......dr. $300,000 To Warranty $300,000 Provision for warranty made by Marvin Co. Ltd is $300,000 is equivalent to 2% of the total gross margin So the total gross margin is =$150, 00, 000[($300,000/2%)*100] All equipments in the range are sold at a gross margin of 30% which is equivalent to $150, 00,000 So the actual volume of sales is $500,00, 000 2% of the sold amount is actually expected to return which is an amount of $10, 00, 000 Estimated actual Warranty Liability: $10, 00, 000 Warranty payable a/c.......dr $10, 00, 000 To Cash inventory a/c $10, 00, 000 So the provision made for warranty liability has to be enhanced by 3 times Initially the provision for warranty of the company was around $300,000.This amount was only 2% of the gross margin. So the total volume of the gross margin is around $150, 00,000 and as the products of this range are sold at a profit margin of 30%, therefore the total amounts of sales will be $500, 00, 000.As per the historical report 2% of the total goods sold $500,00, 000 is returned for warranty replacements and if the replacements is not possible , then full refund will be given to the customers at the cost of the company(Wehrfritz and Haller,2014). Thus provision for warranty has to be enhanced by 3 times. Thus the warranty payable amount of $10, 00, 000 should be debited to the profit and loss account as warranty expense. Impact property revaluation over the financial position of Marvin Co. Ltd The financial analysis has been done as per IAS 36- Impairment of Assets The carrying value [Purchase value of the property-Accumulated Depreciation] of the property is $80,000,000 Annual depreciation for the year 2016 is $20, 00,000 So the carrying amount will be ($80,000,000-$20, 00,000)= $78,000,000 After revaluation the fair value of the property is around $70,000,000 As the fair value of the property is less than the carrying amount therefore there will be a downward adjustment. The amount of the downward adjustment is ($78,000,000-$70,000,000) = $8,000,000 Relevant Journal Entries Revaluation loss a/c.........dr.$8,000,000 To Building a/c $80,000,000 Here the business has applied the revaluation model. The carrying value of the property on 31 December, 2016 was around $80,000,000.The carrying value of a property is calculated by deducting the accumulated depreciation from the Purchase value of the property. In order to calculate the new carrying amount of the property on 31, December, 2016, the depreciation of the year that amounts to $20, 00,000 has been deducted from the previous carrying amount to calculate the new carrying amount of $78,000,000.As the revaluated fair value of the asset is less than the new carrying amount of the property so Marvin Co. Ltd has to make a downward adjustment in its books of accounts (Cairns et al., 2011). The amount of revaluation loss has to be deducted from the value of the property that is present under the fixed asset section of the consolidated balance sheet. Impact of paying the termination benefit over the financial health of Marvin Co. Ltd The managing director Mr John Dickens has received a termination benefit of $500,000, on 31, January, 2017 as he has been dismissed on 31 December, 2016 So the journal entry to be drawn in the books of accounts of Marvin on 31, January, 2017 will be Relevant Journal Entries Profit loss account........ dr. $500,000 To Employee termination benefit a/c ...... cr. $500,000 As the employee has been terminated by the company so it is the duty of the company to meet up his all the promised compensation which the terminated employee is eligible to get. On termination the company has cleared the pending amount of $500,000 that is paid by the company on January, 2017(Liapis and Thalassinos, 2013).Thus this amount has to be debited from the consolidated profit loss account of the company as employee termination benefit expense Due to the liquidation of one of the customer of Marvin Co. Ltd on January, 2017 the company realized that the amount of $ 1 million that is owed by the customer to Marvin Co. Ltd on 31, December, 2016 will be transformed in to bad debt. So the interest amount that is accrued on the amount of debt is $0.2 million .Thus the total bad debt amount of the company is around $1.2 million. This amount of bad debt has to be deducted from the trade receivables [present under the current asset sector of the consolidated balance sheet of the company]. Recommendations: The study of the above financial issues with respect to the company named Marvin Co. Ltd reveals the fact that the financial department of the company has to increase their focus towards the projection of the possible future losses that may heat the financial operations as well as a the asset liability position of the company. A good focus to be given over the maintenance of the fixed asset of the company so that the company get a good revaluation value of the asset that remains higher than the carrying cost of the property. Property maintenance initiative will help the company to avoid the impairment losses. Besides the company should hold a detailed work to estimate the warranty related cost which the business may have to incur with respect to the goods and services sold. As the policy of the company is to provide full return of purchase price or full replacement with respect to the goods that have been returned under warranty contract, mis-calculation of warranty related cost may badly affect the profit earning capacity of the company. Proper projection has also to be done regarding the costs of employee termination cost, revaluation of assets. The company should identify the doubtful debtors well in advance so that the company can calculate the possible impact of a sudden wind up of a debtor which owes a lot to the company.A sudden liquidation of a debtor badly affects the liquidity as well as current asset position of the company. Conclusion: The above assignment describes that a s the business runs certain financial issues crop up with no prior intimation (Borio, 2011). An efficient business management requires that there should be sufficient human resource and liquid capital resource within the company to handle these issues efficiently. For example in case of the given case study the company Marvin Co. Ltd has to purchase a new machinery of worth $1,300,000 and the company decided to purchase that machine in instalments. This issue or activity requires that the business should have sufficient liquid cash to handle to pay the annual requirement and additionally the finance department of the company has to identify the possible impact of this machine purchase on the financial health of the company in terms of profit and loss statements and balance sheet analysis. Again the warranty cost calculation of the company requires that the company should study the historical data in order to understand the trend of the volume of warranty return before building the provision for warranty. Reference: Borio, C., 2011. Implementing the macro-prudential approach to financial regulation and supervision.The Financial Crisis and the Regulation of Finance, pp.101-117. Cairns, D., Massoudi, D., Taplin, R. and Tarca, A., 2011. IFRS fair value measurement and accounting policy choice in the United Kingdom and Australia.The British Accounting Review,43(1), pp.1-21. Chen, H., Tang, Q., Jiang, Y. and Lin, Z., 2010. The role of international financial reporting standards in accounting quality: Evidence from the European Union.Journal of International Financial Management Accounting,21(3), pp.220-278. Choi, J. and Wang, H., 2009. Stakeholder relations Management and the persistence of corporate financial performance.Strategic management journal,30(8), pp.895-907. Kieso, D.E., Weygandt, J.J. and Warfield, T.D., 2010.Intermediate accounting: IFRS edition(Vol. 2). John Wiley Sons. Li, S., 2010. Does mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in the European Union reduce the cost of equity capital?.The accounting review,85(2), pp.607-636. Liapis, K. and Thalassinos, E., 2013. A Comparative Analysis for the Accounting Reporting of Employee Benefits between IFRS and other Accounting Standards: A Case Study for the Biggest Listed Entities in Greece.International Journal of Economics Business Administration,1(1), pp.91-116. Wehrfritz, M. and Haller, A., 2014. National influence on the application of IFRS: Interpretations and accounting estimates by German and British accountants.Advances in Accounting,30(1), pp.196-208.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Pride and Prejudice Study Guide

'Pride and Prejudice' Study Guide Pride and Prejudice is a novel by Jane Austen that satirizes issues of marriage and social class. It follows the relationship between the quick-to-judge Elizabeth Bennet and the haughty Mr. Darcy as both learn to mend their errors in judgment and look beyond markers of social status. First published in 1813, the bitingly funny romantic comedy has endured as both a popular favorite and a literary classic. Fast Facts: Pride and Prejudice Author: Jane AustenPublisher: Thomas Egerton, WhitehallYear Published: 1813Genre: Comedy of mannersType of Work: NovelOriginal Language: EnglishThemes: Love, marriage, pride, social class, wealth, prejudiceCharacters: Elizabeth Bennet, Fitzwilliam Darcy, Jane Bennet, Charles Bingley, George Wickham, Lydia Bennet, William CollinsNotable Adaptations: 1940 film, 1995 television miniseries (BBC), 2005 filmFun Fact: Researchers named a pheromone in male mice that attracts females â€Å"Darcin† after Mr. Darcy. Plot Summary Pride and Prejudice opens with the Bennet familys reaction to a bit of social news: the nearby Netherfield house has been leased to Mr. Bingley, a wealthy and single young man. Mrs. Bennet expresses the belief that Bingley will fall in love with one of her daughters. Her prediction proves true at the neighborhood ball, where Bingley and the sweet eldest Bennet daughter, Jane, fall in love at first sight. At the same ball, the strong-willed second daughter Elizabeth Bennet finds herself the object of disdain from Bingley’s arrogant, antisocial friend Darcy. Caroline Bingley and Mr. Darcy convince Mr. Bingley of Jane’s disinterest and separate the couple. Elizabeth’s distaste for Darcy only grows when she befriends Wickham, a young militiaman who claims that Darcy ruined his livelihood out of spite. Darcy expresses interest in Elizabeth, but Elizabeth harshly rejects Darcy’s self-absorbed proposal of marriage. The truth soon unravels. It is revealed that Wickham spent all the money Darcy’s father left him and then tried to seduce Darcy’s younger sister. During a trip with her aunt and uncle, Elizabeth visits Darcy’s estate, Pemberley, where she begins to view Darcy in a better light. Her positive impression of Darcy grows when she learns that he has secretly used his own money to convince Wickham to marry, rather than abandon, her sister Lydia Bennet. Darcys aunt, Lady Catherine, demands that Darcy marry her daughter, but her plan backfires and instead leads to Darcy and Elizabeth finding their romantic happiness alongside a reunited Jane and Bingley. Major Characters Elizabeth Bennet. The second of the five Bennet daughters, Elizabeth (â€Å"Lizzy†) is the story’s protagonist. Playful and intelligent, she prizes her ability to make judgments quickly. Her journey of self-discovery is at the heart of the story, as she learns how to discern the truth beneath first impressions. Fitzwilliam Darcy. Mr. Darcy is a haughty and wealthy landowner who snubs Elizabeth when they first meet. He is proud of his social status and is frustrated with his own attraction to Elizabeth but, like her, he learns to overcome his previous judgments to come to a truer perspective. Jane Bennet. The sweet, pretty eldest Bennet daughter. She falls in love with Charles Bingley, Her kind, nonjudgmental nature leads her to overlook Caroline Bingley’s malice until it is almost too late. Charles Bingley. Polite, open-hearted, and a little naà ¯ve, Bingley is a close friend of Darcy. He is easily influenced by Darcy’s opinions. He falls in love with Jane but is persuaded away from her, although he learns the truth in time to make amends. George Wickham. An outwardly charming soldier, Wickham’s pleasant demeanor hides a selfish, manipulative core. Though he presents himself as a victim of Darcy’s pride, he is revealed to be the problem himself. He continues his bad behavior by seducing young Lydia Bennet. Major Themes Love and Marriage. The novel focuses on the obstacles to, and the reasons for, romantic love. Most notably, it satirizes expectations about marriages of convenience and suggests that genuine compatibility and attraction- as well as honesty and respect- are the foundations of the best matches. Characters who try to subvert this thesis are the targets of the book’s biting satire. Pride. In the novel, uncontrolled pride is one of the biggest obstacles to the characters’ happiness. In particular, pride based on notions of class and status is framed as ridiculous and unfounded in real values. Prejudice. Making judgments about others can be useful, but not when those judgments are formed erroneously or quickly. The novel posits that overly confident prejudice must be overcome and tempered before the characters can reach happiness. Social Status. Austen famously satirizes the manners and obsessions of class distinctions. While none of the characters are socially mobile in the modern sense, obsessions with status are presented as foolish and arrogant. Wealth and inheritance do matter, though, as evidenced by Mr. Collins’ presence as Mr. Bennet’s heir. Literary Style Austen’s writing is famous for one particular literary device: free indirect discourse. Free indirect discourse is the technique of writing thoughts that seem to come from an individual characters mind, without shifting into first-person narration or using action tags such as she thought. This device gives readers access to inner thoughts and helps to solidify the characters’ unique voices. The novel was written in the Romantic period of literature, which was at its peak in the first half of the 19th century. The movement, which was a reaction against the onslaught of industrialism and rationalism, emphasized individuals and their emotions. Austen’s work fits into this framework to a degree, as it emphasizes decidedly non-industrial contexts and focuses primarily on the emotional lives of richly drawn individual characters. About the Author Born in 1775, Jane Austen is best known for her sharp observations of a small social circle: country gentry, with a few lower-tier military families in the mix. Her work prized the inner lives of women, featuring complicated characters who were flawed yet likable and whose internal conflicts were as important as their romantic entanglements. Austen shied away from over-sentimentality, preferring instead to mix heartfelt emotions with a helping of pointed wit.